A collection of publications, citations, presentations, links and general educational resources:

Cerebral autoregulation publications by citation

Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humansAaslid, R., Lindegaard, K.-F., Sorteberg, W., Nornes, H.1989, Stroke 20: 45-52564
Cerebral arterial diameters during changes in blood pressure and carbon dioxide during craniotomyGiller, C.A., Bowman, G., Dyer, H., Mootz, L., Krippner, W., Loftus, C.M., Muizelaar, J.P.1993, Neurosurgery 32: 737-742344
Comparison of static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation measurementsTiecks, F.P., Lam, A.M., Aaslid, R., Newell, D.W.1995, Stroke 26: 1014-1019327
Comparison of flow and velocity during dynamic autoregulation testing in humansNewell, D.W., Aaslid, R., Lam, A., Mayberg, T.S., Winn, H.R.1994, Stroke 25: 793-797290
Correlation of cerebral blood flow and electroencephalographic changes during carotid endarterectomy. With results of surgery and hemodynamics of cerebral ischemiaSundt Jr., T.M., Sharbrough, F.W., Piepgras, D.G.1981, Mayo Clinic Proceedings 56: 533-543259
Monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in patients with severe head injuries: Brain tissue PO2 versus jugular vein oxygen saturationKiening, K.L., Unterberg, A.W., Bardt, T.F., Schneider, G.-H., Lanksch, W.R.1996, Journal of Neurosurgery 85: 751-757244
Transfer function analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humansZhang, R., Zuckerman, J.H., Giller, C.A., Levine, B.D.1998, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 274: H233-H241203
Dynamic and static cerebral autoregulation during isoflurane, desflurane, and propofol anesthesiaStrebel, S., Lam, A.M., Matta, B., Mayberg, T.S., Aaslid, R., Newell, D.W.1995, Anesthesiology 83: 66-76195
Phase relationship between cerebral blood flow velocity and blood pressure: A clinical test of autoregulationDiehl, R.R., Linden, D., Lucke, D., Berlit, P.1995, Stroke 26: 1801-1804189
Monitoring of cerebral autoregulation in head-injured patientsCzosnyka, M., Smielewski, P., Kirkpatrick, P., Menon, D.K., Pickard, J.D.1996, Stroke 27: 1829-1834177
Cerebral vasoconstriction during head-upright tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. A paradoxic and unexpected responseGrubb, B.P., Gerard, G., Roush, K., Temesy-Armos, P., Montford, P., Elliott, L., Hahn, H., Brewster, P.1991, Circulation 84: 1157-1164160
Assessment of cerebral autoregulation dynamics from simultaneous arterial and venous transcranial Doppler recordings in humansAaslid, R., Newell, D.W., Stooss, R., Sorteberg, W., Lindegaard, K.-F.1991, Stroke 22: 1148-1154158
Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humansLevine, B.D., Giller, C.A., Lane, L.D., Buckey, J.C., Blomqvist, C.G.1994, Circulation 90: 298-306155
Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: The influence of PaCO2Murkin, J.M., Farrar, J.K., Tweed, W.A., McKenzie, F.N., Guiraudon, G.1987, Anesthesia and Analgesia 66: 825-832144
Impairment of cerebral perfusion during obstructive sleep apneasBålfors, E.M., Franklin, K.A.1994, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 150: 1587-1591134
Autonomic neural control of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humansZhang, R., Zuckerman, J.H., Iwasaki, K., Wilson, T.E., Crandall, C.G., Levine, B.D.2002, Circulation 106: 1814-1820129
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in orthostatic hypotensionNovak, V., Novak, P., Spies, J.M., Low, P.A.1998, Stroke 29: 104-111102
A simple mathematical model of the interaction between intracranial pressure and cerebral hemodynamicsUrsino, M., Lodi, C.A.1997, Journal of Applied Physiology 82: 1256-126999
Cerebral autoregulation following minor head injuryJünger, E.C., Newell, D.W., Grant, G.A., Avellino, A.M., Ghatan, S., Douville, C.M., Lam, A.M., Aaslid, R., Winn, H.R.1997, Journal of Neurosurgery 86: 425-43299
Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in carotid artery stenosisWhite, R.P., Markus, H.S.1997, Stroke 28: 1340-134498
A bedside test for cerebral autoregulation using transcranial Doppler ultrasoundGiller, C.A.1991, Acta Neurochirurgica 108: 7-1498
Assessment of autoregulation by means of periodic changes in blood pressureBirch, A.A., Dirnhuber, M.J., Hartley-Davies, R., Iannotti, F., Neil-Dwyer, G.1995, Stroke 26: 834-83797
Cerebral blood flow is independent of mean arterial blood pressure in preterm infants undergoing intensive careTyszczuk, L., Meek, J., Elwell, C., Wyatt, J.S.1998, Pediatrics 102: 337-34196
Transfer function analysis of cerebral autoregulation dynamics in autonomic failure patientsBlaber, A.P., Bondar, R.L., Stein, F., Dunphy, P.T., Moradshahi, P., Kassam, M.S., Freeman, R.1997, Stroke 28: 1686-169296
The frequency-dependent behavior of cerebral autoregulationGiller, C.A.1990, Neurosurgery 27: 362-36896
Cerebral autoregulation following head injuryCzosnyka, M., Smielewski, P., Piechnik, S., Steiner, L.A., Pickard, J.D.2001, Journal of Neurosurgery 95: 756-76391
Linear and nonlinear analysis of human dynamic cerebral autoregulationPanerai, R.B., Dawson, S.L., Potter, J.F.1999, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 277: H1089-H109987
Relationship between cardiac output and cerebral blood flow in patients with intact and with impaired autoregulationBouma, G.J., Muizelaar, J.P.1990, Journal of Neurosurgery 73: 368-37486
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation and beat to beat blood pressure control are impaired in acute ischaemic strokeEames, P.J., Blake, M.J., Dawson, S.L., Panerai, R.B., Potter, J.F.2002, Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 72: 467-47285
Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations and cerebral autoregulationDiehl, R.R., Linden, D., Lücke, D., Berlit, P.1998, Clinical Autonomic Research 8: 7-1284
Effects of sevoflurane on cerebral circulation and metabolism in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseaseKitaguchi, K., Ohsumi, H., Kuro, M., Nakajima, T., Hayashi, Y.1993, Anesthesiology 79: 704-70982
Defective cerebrovascular autoregulation after carotid endarterectomyJorgensen, L.G., Schroeder, T.V.1993, European Journal of Vascular Surgery 7: 370-37980
Deterioration of cerebral autoregulation during orthostatic stress: Insights from the frequency domainZhang, R., Zuckerman, J.H., Levine, B.D.1998, Journal of Applied Physiology 85: 1113-112277
Frequency domain analysis of cerebral blood flow velocity and its correlation with arterial blood pressureKuo, T.B.-J., Chern, C.-M., Sheng, W.-Y., Wong, W.-J., Hu, H.-H.1998, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 18: 311-31877
Assessment of cerebral autoregulation using carotid artery compressionSmielewski, P., Czosnyka, M., Kirkpatrick, P., McEroy, H., Rutkowska, H., Pickard, J.D.1996, Stroke 27: 2197-220377
Simultaneous cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses during presyncopeBondar, R.L., Kassam, M.S., Stein, F., Dunphy, P.T., Fortney, S., Riedesel, M.L.1995, Stroke 26: 1794-180077
Dynamic but not static cerebral autoregulation is impaired in acute ischaemic strokeDawson, S.L., Blake, M.J., Panerai, R.B., Potter, J.F.2000, Cerebrovascular Diseases 10: 126-13273
Effect of CO2 on dynamic cerebral autoregulation measurementPanerai, R.B., Deverson, S.T., Mahony, P., Hayes, P., Evans, D.H.1999, Physiological Measurement 20: 265-27573
Grading of cerebral dynamic autoregulation from spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressurePanerai, R.B., White, R.P., Markus, H.S., Evans, D.H.1998, Stroke 29: 2341-234673
Transfer function analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humansZhang, R., Zuckerman, J.H., Giller, C.A., Levine, B.D.1998, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 43: H233-H24173
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation during sevoflurane anesthesia: A comparison with isofluraneSummors, A.C., Gupta, A.K., Matta, B.F.1999, Anesthesia and Analgesia 88: 341-34572
Effect of hypothermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the pigEhrlich, M.P., McCullough, J.N., Zhang, N., Weisz, D.J., Juvonen, T., Bodian, C.A., Griepp, R.B.2002, Annals of Thoracic Surgery 73: 191-19771
Frequency-domain analysis of cerebral autoregulation from spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressurePanerai, R.B., Rennie, J.M., Kelsall, A.W.R., Evans, D.H.1998, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 36: 315-32271
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular measurements during neurally mediated syncope induced by head-up tiltSchondorf, R., Benoit, J., Wein, T.1997, Stroke 28: 1564-156871
The effect of changes in cardiac output on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity at rest and during exerciseOgoh, S., Brothers, M., Barnes, Q., Eubank, W.L., Hawkins, M.N., Purkayastha, S., O-Yurvati, A., Raven, P.B.2005, Journal of Physiology 569: 697-70468
Effects of the Valsalva maneuver on cerebral circulation in healthy adults: A transcranial Doppler studyTiecks, F.P., Lam, A.M., Matta, B.F., Strebel, S., Douville, C., Newell, D.W.1995, Stroke 26: 1386-139267
Management of hypertension in patients with acute strokeLavin, P.1986, Archives of Internal Medicine 146: 66-6867
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease: The brain sparing effectDonofrio, M.T., Bremer, Y.A., Schieken, R.M., Gennings, C., Morton, L.D., Eidem, B.W., Cetta, F., Falkensammer, C.B., Huhta, J.C., Kleinman, C.S.2003, Pediatric Cardiology 24: 436-44366
Cerebral blood flow velocity response to induced and spontaneous sudden changes in arterial blood pressurePanerai, R.B., Dawson, S.L., Eames, P.J., Potter, J.F.2001, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 280: H2162-H217464
Multivariate dynamic analysis of cerebral blood flow regulation in humansPanerai, R.B., Simpson, D.M., Deverson, S.T., Mahony, P., Hayes, P., Evans, D.H.2000, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 47: 419-42364
Effect of transient moderate hyperventilation on dynamic cerebral autoregulation after severe head injuryNewell, D.W., Weber, J.P., Watson, R., Aaslid, R., Winn, H.R.1996, Neurosurgery 39: 35-4464
Cerebral autoregulation testing after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: The phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocityLang, E.W., Diehl, R.R., Mehdorn, H.M.2001, Critical Care Medicine 29: 158-16363
Evaluation of impaired cerebral autoregulation by the valsalva maneuverTiecks, F.P., Douville, C., Byrd, S., Lam, A.M., Newell, D.W.1996, Stroke 27: 1177-118262
Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature newbornsPanerai, R.B., Kelsall, A.W.R., Rennie, J.M., Evans, D.H.1995, Stroke 26: 74-8062
Hypotensive extremely low birth weight infants have reduced cerebral blood flowMunro, M.J., Walker, A.M., Barfield, C.P.2004, Pediatrics 114: 1591-159661
Effects of head-down-tilt bed rest on cerebral hemodynamics during orthostatic stressZhang, R., Zuckerman, J.H., Pawelczyk, J.A., Levine, B.D.1997, Journal of Applied Physiology 83: 2139-214561
Impaired neurogenic cerebrovascular control and dysautoregulation after strokeMeyer, J.S., Shimazu, K., Fukuuchi, Y.1973, Stroke 4: 169-18661
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrestSundgreen, C., Larsen, F.S., Herzog, T.M., Knudsen, G.M., Boesgaard, S., Aldershvile, J.2001, Stroke 32: 128-13260
Transfer function analysis of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with carotid stenosisHu, H.-H., Kuo, T.B.-J., Wong, W.-J., Luk, Y.-O., Chern, C.-M., Hsu, L.-C., Sheng, W.-Y.1999, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 19: 460-46560
Evaluation of the transient hyperemic response test in head-injured patientsSmielewski, P., Czosnyka, M., Kirkpatrick, P., Pickard, J.D.1997, Journal of Neurosurgery 86: 773-77858
Cerebrospinal fluid pulse waveform as an indicator of cerebral autoregulationPortnoy, H.D., Chopp, M., Branch, C., Shannon, M.B.1982, Journal of Neurosurgery 56: 666-67858
Impaired cerebral autoregulation in patients with malignant hypertensionImmink, R.V., Van Den Born, B.-J.H., Van Montfrans, G.A., Koopmans, R.P., Karemaker, J.M., Van Lieshout, J.J.2004, Circulation 110: 2241-224556
Altered cerebral autoregulation and CO2 reactivity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageDernbach, P.D., Little, J.R., Jones, S.C., Ebrahim, Z.Y., Smith, R.R.1988, Neurosurgery 22: 822-82656
Regional cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, and brain metabolism in comatose patientsBruce, D.A., Langfitt, T.W., Miller, J.D.1973, Journal of Neurosurgery 38: 131-14456
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy: Predictive factors and hemodynamic changesAscher, E., Markevich, N., Schutzer, R.W., Kallakuri, S., Jacob, T., Hingorani, A.P.2003, Journal of Vascular Surgery 37: 769-77755
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation in sick newborn infantsBoylan, G.B., Young, K., Panerai, R.B., Rennie, J.M., Evans, D.H.2000, Pediatric Research 48: 12-1755
Negative dip in BOLD fMRI is caused by blood flow - Oxygen consumption uncoupling in humansRöther, J., Knab, R., Hamzei, F., Fiehler, J., Reichenbach, J.R., Büchel, C., Weiller, C.2002, NeuroImage 15: 98-10254
Cerebral autoregulatory responses to head-up tilt in normal subjects and patients with recurrent vasovagal syncopeCarey, B.J., Manktelow, B.N., Panerai, R.B., Potter, J.F.2001, Circulation 104: 898-90254
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is unaffected by agingCarey, B.J., Eames, P.J., Blake, M.J., Panerai, R.B., Potter, J.F.2000, Stroke 31: 2895-290053
Regional cerebral blood flow in man at rest and during exerciseHerholz, K., Buskies, W., Rist, M., Pawlik, G., Hollmann, W., Heiss, W.D.1987, Journal of Neurology 234: 9-1353
Assessment of the thigh cuff technique for measurement of dynamic cerebral autoregulationMahony, P.J., Panerai, R.B., Deverson, S.T., Hayes, P.D., Evans, D.H.2000, Stroke 31: 476-48052
Hyperventilation restores cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with acute liver failureStrauss, G., Hansen, B.A., Knudsen, G.M., Larsen, F.S.1998, Journal of Hepatology 28: 199-20352
Cerebral autoregulation during moderate hypothermia in ratsVerhaegen, M.J.J., Todd, M.M., Hindman, B.J., Warner, D.S., Rosenblum, W.I.1993, Stroke 24: 407-41452
Cerebral autoregulation in awake versus isoflurane-anesthetized ratsHoffman, W.E., Edelman, G., Kochs, E., Werner, C., Segil, L., Albrecht, R.F.1991, Anesthesia and Analgesia 73: 753-75752
Critical closing pressure explains cerebral hemodynamics during the valsalva maneuverDawson, S.L., Panerai, R.B., Potter, J.F.1999, Journal of Applied Physiology 86: 675-68051
Computerized analysis of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in humans: Validation of a method for pharmacologic studiesSchmidt, J.F., Waldemar, G., Vorstrup, S., Andersen, A.R., Gjerris, F., Paulson, O.B.1990, Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 15: 983-98851
Cerebral syncope: Loss of consciousness associated with cerebral vasoconstriction in the absence of systemic hypotensionGrubb, B.P., Samoil, D., Kosinski, D., Wolfe, D., Brewster, P., Elliott, L., Hahn, H.1998, PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 21: 652-65850
Analysis of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in neonatesPanerai, R.B., Kelsall, A.W.R., Rennie, J.M., Evans, D.H.1996, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 43: 779-78850
Cerebral autoregulation.Paulson, O.B., Strandgaard, S., Edvinsson, L.1990, Cerebrovascular and brain metabolism reviews 2: 161-192698
Cerebral autoregulationStrandgaard, S., Paulson, O.B.1984, Stroke 15: 413-416186
Assessment of cerebral pressure autoregulation in humans - A review of measurement methodsPanerai, R.B.1998, Physiological Measurement 19: 305-338181
Brain angiotensin II: New developments, unanswered questions and therapeutic opportunitiesSaavedra, J.M.2005, Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 25: 485-512103
Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during cardiopulmonary bypassSchell, R.M., Kern, F.H., Greeley, W.J., Schulman, S.R., Frasco, P.E., Croughwell, N.D., Newman, M., Reves, J.G.1993, Anesthesia and Analgesia 76: 849-86567
Treatment modalities for hypertensive patients with intracranial pathology: Options and risksTietjen, C.S., Hurn, P.D., Ulatowski, J.A., Kirsch, J.R.1996, Critical Care Medicine 24: 311-32253
Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in severe head injuryLang, E.W., Chesnut, R.M.1995, New Horizons: Science and Practice of Acute Medicine 3: 400-40953
Transcranial Doppler: clinical and experimental uses.Newell, D.W., Aaslid, R.1992, Cerebrovascular and brain metabolism reviews 4: 122-14352

Publications by members of CARNet.

Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation: from methodology towards clinical application.

Eric thesis image

PhD Thesis of Dr E. Gommer investigating dynamic cerebral autoregulation.

External Link: Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation: from methodology towards clinical application.

Dr E. Gommer

Cerebral Autoregulation Control of Blood Flow in the Brain

Cerebral autoregulation book

A Comprehensive textbook on the topic of cerebral autoregulation which covers both the technical and clinical aspects of the domain.

External Link: Cerebral Autoregulation Control of Blood Flow in the Brain

Prof. S. J. Payne

Training materials.

Introduction to Signal Processing

Signal Processing image

An introductory lecture on signal processing given by Dr Simpson at the 2nd International CARNet meeting in Nijmegen.

Power point slides: Signal_processing_for_quantifying_autoregulation.ppt

Dr D. M. Simpson

Brain Physics in 30 short lectures (not only for engineers)

Brain Physics image

A comprehensive lecture series on the physics of the brain provided by the University of Cambridge Department of Clinical Neurosciences.

External link:

Dr. M. Czosnyka

Multimodal Pressure-Flow Analysis to Assess Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation.

Empirical mode decomposition image

An introductory lecture on empirical mode decomposition and its application to pressure flow analysis given by Dr Yang at the 3rd International CARNet meeting in Porto.

Power point slides: TS1.ppt

Dr. A. C. Yang

Online resources.

Le Physiologiste

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A place where grad students/postdoc/researchers in cerebrovascular physiology can discuss published papers, methods, etc. in cerebrovascular physiology.

External link:

Dr P. Brassard

Web page image

This private initiative was created in response to critical medical problem seeking to encourage and stimulate discussions about cerebrovascular autoregulation, it‘s adaptability, evaluation methods and innovative techniques.

External link:

Prof A. Ragauskas

Media files for promotional purposes

Colour Image

colour logo image

Greyscale Image

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Tools to aid the standardisation and calculation of cerebral autoregulation

Matlab TFA function

This function is a Matlab implementation of the TFA as specified in the White Paper (2015). An example of use on the supplied data (tfa_sample_data.txt) is given in tfa_demo.m and results are reported at the end of this report.

Documentation: Documentation_for_function_tfa_car_latest.pdf

Matlab Code:

Prof. D. M. Simpson